Describes the Windows PowerShell execution policies and explains
how to manage them.
Windows PowerShell execution policies let you determine the
conditions under which Windows PowerShell loads configuration files
and runs scripts.
You can set an execution policy for the local computer, for the current
user, or for a particular session. You can also use a Group Policy
setting to set execution policy for computers and users.
Execution policies for the local computer and current user are stored
in the registry. You do not need to set execution policies in your
Windows PowerShell profile. The execution policy for a particular session
is stored only in memory and is lost when the session is closed.
The execution policy is not a security system that restricts user actions.
For example, users can easily circumvent a policy by typing the script
contents at the command line when they cannot run a script. Instead, the
execution policy helps users to set basic rules and prevents them from
violating them unintentionally.
WINDOWS POWERSHELL EXECUTION POLICIES
The Windows PowerShell execution policies are as follows:
"Restricted" is the default policy.
- Default execution policy in Windows 8,
Windows Server 2012, and Windows 8.1.
- Permits individual commands, but will not run
- Prevents running of all script files, including
formatting and configuration files (.ps1xml), module
script files (.psm1), and Windows PowerShell
- Scripts can run.
- Requires that all scripts and configuration files
be signed by a trusted publisher, including scripts
that you write on the local computer.
- Prompts you before running scripts from publishers
that you have not yet classified as trusted or
- Risks running signed, but malicious, scripts.
- Scripts can run. This is the default execution
policy in Windows Server 2012 R2.
- Requires a digital signature from a trusted
publisher on scripts and configuration files that
are downloaded from the Internet (including
e-mail and instant messaging programs).
- Does not require digital signatures on scripts that
you have written on the local computer (not
downloaded from the Internet).
- Runs scripts that are downloaded from the Internet
and not signed, if the scripts are unblocked, such
as by using the Unblock-File cmdlet.
- Risks running unsigned scripts from sources other
than the Internet and signed, but malicious, scripts.
- Unsigned scripts can run. (This risks running malicious
- Warns the user before running srcipts and configuration
files that are downloaded from the Internet.
- Nothing is blocked and there are no warnings or
- This execution policy is designed for configurations
in which a Windows PowerShell script is built in to a
a larger application or for configurations in which
Windows PowerShell is the foundation for a program
that has its own security model.
- There is no execution policy set in the current scope.
- If the execution policy in all scopes is Undefined, the
effective execution policy is Restricted, which is the
default execution policy.
Note: On systems that do not distinguish Universal Naming Convention (UNC)
paths from Internet paths, scripts that are identified by a UNC path
might not be permitted to run with the RemoteSigned execution policy.
EXECUTION POLICY SCOPE
You can set an execution policy that is effective only in a
The valid values for Scope are Process, CurrentUser, and
LocalMachine. LocalMachine is the default when setting an
The Scope values are listed in precedence order.
The execution policy affects only the current session
(the current Windows PowerShell process).
The execution policy is stored in the
$env:PSExecutionPolicyPreference environment variable,
not in the registry, and it is deleted when the
session is closed. You cannot change the policy by
editing the variable value.
The execution policy affects only the current user. It
is stored in the HKEY_CURRENT_USER registry subkey.
The execution policy affects all users on the current
computer. It is stored in the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
The policy that takes precedence is effective in the current
session, even if a more restrictive policy was set at a lower
level of precedence.
For more information, see Set-ExecutionPolicy.
GET YOUR EXECUTION POLICY
To get the Windows PowerShell execution policy that is in
effect in the current session, use the Get-ExecutionPolicy cmdlet.
The following command gets the current execution policy:
To get all of the execution policies that affect the current
session and displays them in precedence order, type:
The result will look similar to the following sample output:
In this case, the effective execution policy is RemoteSigned
because the execution policy for the current user takes precedence
over the execution policy set for the local computer.
To get the execution policy set for a particular scope, use the
Scope parameter of Get-ExecutionPolicy.
For example, the following command gets the execution policy for
the current user scope.
Get-ExecutionPolicy -Scope CurrentUser
CHANGE YOUR EXECUTION POLICY
To change the Windows PowerShell execution policy on your
computer, use the Set-ExecutionPolicy cmdlet.
The change is effective immediately; you do not need to restart
If you set the execution policy for the local computer (the default)
or the current user, the change is saved in the registry and remains
effective until you change it again.
If you set the execution policy for the current process, it is
not saved in the registry. It is retained until the current
process and any child processes are closed.
Note: In Windows Vista and later versions of Windows, to run
commands that change the execution policy for the local
computer (the default), start Windows PowerShell with the
"Run as administrator" option.
To change your execution policy, type:
Set-ExecutionPolicy -ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned
To set the execution policy in a particular scope, type:
Set-ExecutionPolicy --ExecutionPolicy -Scope
Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned -Scope CurrentUser
A command to change an execution policy can succeed but
still not change the effective execution policy.
For example, a command that sets the execution policy for
the local computer can succeed but be overridden by the
execution policy for the current user.
REMOVE YOUR EXECUTION POLICY
To remove the execution policy for a particular scope, set
the value of the value of the execution policy to Undefined.
For example, to remove the execution policy for all the users of
the local computer, type:
Set-ExecutionPolicy Undefined -scope LocalMachine
If no execution policy is set in any scope, the effective
execution policy is Restricted, which is the default.
SET A DIFFERENT EXECUTION POLICY FOR ONE SESSION
You can use the ExecutionPolicy parameter of PowerShell.exe to
set an execution policy for a new Windows PowerShell session.
The policy affects only the current session and child sessions.
To set the execution policy for a new session, start Windows PowerShell
at the command line (such as Cmd.exe or Windows PowerShell), and then use
the ExecutionPolicy parameter of PowerShell.exe to set the execution
PowerShell.exe -ExecutionPolicy AllSigned
The execution policy that you set is not stored in the registry.
Instead, it is stored in the $env:PSExecutionPolicyPreference
environment variable. The variable is deleted when you close
the session in which the policy is set. You cannot change the
policy by editing the variable value.
During the session, the execution policy that is set for the session takes
precedence over an execution policy that is set in the registry for the
local computer or current user. However, it does not take precedence over
the execution policy set by using a Group Policy setting (discussed below).
USE GROUP POLICY TO MANAGE EXECUTION POLICY
You can use the "Turn on Script Execution" Group Policy setting
to manage the execution policy of computers in your enterprise.
The Group Policy setting overrides the execution policies set in Windows
PowerShell in all scopes.
The "Turn on Script Execution" policy settings are as follows:
-- If you disable "Turn on Script Execution", scripts do not run.
This is equivalent to the "Restricted" execution policy.
-- If you enable "Turn on Script Execution", you can select an
execution policy. The Group Policy settings are equivalent to
the following execution policy settings.
Group Policy Execution Policy
Allow all scripts. Unrestricted
Allow local scripts RemoteSigned
and remote signed
Allow only signed AllSigned
-- If "Turn on Script Execution" is not configured, it has no
effect. The execution policy set in Windows PowerShell is
The PowerShellExecutionPolicy.adm and PowerShellExecutionPolicy.admx
files add the "Turn on Script Execution" policy to the Computer
Configuration and User Configuration nodes in Group Policy Editor in
the following paths.
For Windows XP and Windows Server 2003:
Administrative Templates\Windows Components\Windows PowerShell
For Windows Vista and later versions of Windows:
Administrative Templates\Classic Administrative Templates\
Windows Components\Windows PowerShell
Policies set in the Computer Configuration node take precedence
over policies set in the User Configuration node.
The PowerShellExecutionPolicy.adm file is available on the
Microsoft Download Center. For more information, see "Administrative
Templates for Windows PowerShell" at
For more information, see about_Group_Policy_Settings at
EXECUTION POLICY PRECEDENCE
When determining the effective execution policy for a
session, Windows PowerShell evaluates the execution policies
in the following precedence order:
- Group Policy: Computer Configuration
- Group Policy: User Configuration
- Execution Policy: Process (or PowerShell.exe -ExecutionPolicy)
- Execution Policy: CurrentUser
- Execution Policy: LocalMachine
MANAGE SIGNED AND UNSIGNED SCRIPTS
If your Windows PowerShell execution policy is RemoteSigned,
Windows PowerShell will not run unsigned scripts that are
downloaded from the Internet (including e-mail and instant
You can sign the script or elect to run an unsigned script
without changing the execution policy.
Beginning in Windows PowerShell 3.0, you can use the Stream
parameter of the Get-Item cmdlet to detect files that are
blocked because they were downloaded from the Internet, and
you can use the Unblock-File cmdlet to unblock the scripts
so that you can run them in Windows PowerShell.
For more information, see about_Signing, Get-Item, and
"Administrative Templates for Windows PowerShell"
"PowerShell.exe Console Help"